Thursday, June 4, 2020

Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide in Terminal Illness - Free Essay Example

Who has known someone with a terminal illness? What if you were extremely ill and in an incredible amount of pain and there werent any medications to help you? Imagine this, you have a terminal illness and youre in the hospital knowing that youre getting closer to a slow and painful death. You cant do anything about it because of how severe it is and therers no other way to treat it. A. You know that soon your time is coming to where youll be suffering and cannot be cured from the painful disease that has taken over your body. II. Thesis: Today I will inform you about one of the most controversial issues in the U.S. and why physician assisted suicide should be legal for people with terminal illnesses throughout the United States. III. Connect: This topic is important to us because it talks about how we should be able to make these important decisions in our lives if we needed to. IV. Preview: A. First, we will go over why most people dont agree with legalizing Physician Assisted Suicide in every state. B. Second, we will go over why it would be a good idea to legalize physician assisted suicide for the terminally ill. C. Third, we will discuss why and how it would help some people who might need this option. Body I. Main Point: Letrs begin with what Physician Assisted Suicide is and the reasons why there are many people who are against it. A. There are a lot of people who dont know much information about PAS and it can be easily misunderstood. When some people hear the term Physician Assisted Suicide they are usually against it and their reason could be because of their religion or just their personal beliefs. 1. For those of you wondering what exactly Physician Assisted Suicide is, it is for someone has a terminal illness and voluntarily chooses to end their lives under certain circumstances to avoid suffering. a. The Euthanasia Society of America first began in New York in 1938. They wanted people who were terminally ill and incurable to have the right to die and have it be legal. b. In 2003 Sage Journals article titled Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide, David Clark says that for the first time ever a law passed under to legalize assisted suicide under certain circumstances for people who were terminally ill (Clark, 2003). c. There are different types of assisted suicide that gives you the option of taking a lethal medication, or passive euthanasia that is known as pulling the plug when the patient is on life support, and active euthanasia which is when the physician injects the lethal drug. Active euthanasia is mostly used in the Netherlands. B. This is only legal in 4 states in the U.S. including Oregon, Washington, Vermont, and Montana. Chaplains Experiences with Patients Requesting Physician-Assisted Suicide, Bryant Carlson stated that in order for this to be done the patient would have to have 6 months or less until death, then it would have to be confirmed by a doctor, and a physician would prescribe a lethal medication for the patient to take (Carlson, 2005). a. The patient would have to consent to doing this and the physician who is in charge would then proceed to giving them the medication. 1. In 2018 United States Conference of Catholic Bishops article titled The Wrong Approach to End of Life Care, Michael Gloth states that some Catholics believe physician assisted suicide is murder (Gloth, 2018). The people that are religious also believe that god should make the decision when someoners life should come to an end. a. I can see why people would disagree with assisted suicide because they believe that if god suffered then we should too. b. Another negative outcome of this would be that some may try to take advantage of assisted death if they had a mental illness. II. Main Point: Now that Ive gone over what PAS is, letrs move onto why people believe it wouldnt be a good idea to legalize it in the United States. A. The opposing view, represented by Cheryl K. Smithrs article Issues in Law Medicine in 1993 argues that a number of those reported cases involved people who didnt have a terminal illness and there would be people who would be influenced by their mental state (Smith, 1993). 1. However, they are wrong because patients would need to be evaluated to make sure they didnt have depression or any other mental illnesses. a. The laws in Vermont to be approved of assisted suicide is that you must 18 years or older, you must be a resident of Vermont, you have to be capable of making your own decisions and not be influenced by others, and most importantly you have to be diagnosed with a terminal illness that will lead to death. B. In 2012 Nursing Older Peoplers article titled Pros and Cons of Assisted Dying, Maura Buchanan stated that a con to assisted death is that it could be influenced by others (Buchanan, 2012). 1. If someone decided that they wanted to turn to assisted death then it should be because they truly wanted to, not because someone else is encouraging them to do it. III. Main Point: Now that weve gone over why people are against it, letrs move on to why it should be considered a human right to make this important decision. A. In 2018 The Hastings Center article titled Physician Assisted Death, Timothy E. Quill stated that PAS is best studied for terminally ill patients in Oregon. (Quill, 2018). 1. To become more informed about this topic The Hastings Center website has many articles about this. B. This is a topic that should be talked about more by adults, itrs important to be informed and form your own opinion based off your own research. 1. Imagine if you or a family member was put in that position where the decision needed to be made if they wanted to have peaceful death in a safe environment without suffering. a. Prolonging someoners death is not financially the right move, especially if they want to die. b. If any of you were in that position you would probably feel better knowing that it could be one of your last options. Transition: Hopefully you now have a better understanding of Conclusion I. Review: A. Some reasons why people disagree with Physician Assisted Suicide B. Why it should be legalized C. Why we should be able to make this important decision II. Conclude with Impact: Ill leave you with this, imagine yourself in a situation where you would consider using this as a last resort. If you still dont think this is something you would do, then hopefully you can be more understanding to those who do.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Death, Mortality, And The Afterlife - 938 Words

Freud once said that death is inevitable and yet inconceivable. The idea of death, mortality, and afterlife has been a question for the human race since the beginning of time. Throughout time and space these ideas have changed and have been modified according to their own views depending in what region they were born in and the time period. To look at what has changed over the periods we have to look at our history starting with writings like the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Hebrew texture, the Bible and many more stories both historical and religious. All trying to answer the same questions regarding death, mortality and the afterlife. There are 5 immortality narratives that define the human process staying alive, resurrection, soul, a legacy, and wisdom. One of the most historical books that we have of early era is Epic of Gilgamesh. The concept of death, mortality and the afterlife are all the major themes of the book. Gilgamesh who is not fearful of death in his youth and even considers a good death realized that he was not going to be remembered, goes out to make himself immortal with is friend Enkidu. After a battle his best friend Enkidu gets hurt and dies which makes Gilgamesh broken and afraid of death. After Enkidu’s death Gilgamesh goes out to find eternal life but at the end realizes that the only way to stay alive forever is to do good things in life and leave a make on the world and for Gilgamesh it was the walls of Uruk. So the basic view of the Sumerians was thatShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Because I Could Not Stop for Death Essay1188 Words   |  5 Pageswhere regular themes include death and mortality. One such poem that exemplifies her â€Å"dark side† is, â€Å"Because I Could Not Stop for Death†. In this piece, Dickinson tells the story of a soul’s transition into the afterlife showing that time and death have outright power over our lives and can make what was once significant become meaningless. While we now know this poem as â€Å"Because I Could Not Stop for Death†, it was originally an untitled piece. After Dickinson’s death, her younger sister LaviniaRead MoreDeath, Morality, And The Afterlife919 Words   |  4 PagesThe idea the death, morality, and the afterlife have gradually changed through history. Death has an unavoidable and unpredictable nature. The conceptualization of death and what happens to a person when they die is perplexing to understand. Humans tend to fear the things in which they cannot begin to explain. No one person exactly knows for sure what to expect once they leave this world. So, we have established religion and science in an attempt to allow us to wrap our heads around this idea. EventuallyRead MoreTheme Of Death In Hamlet969 Words   |  4 Pagesstory of a great tragedy in which death is the permeating idea and connective thread. Through the experiences of Hamlet, Shakespeare is able to explore the complexities of life and dea th. Following the murder of his father, Hamlet seeks to avenge his death in the process of defining the meaning of his own life within himself. In the process of reaching complete madness, Hamlet both contemplates his own death, experiences the death of those closest to him, and causes death. From these experiences, he furtherRead MoreLife After Death962 Words   |  4 Pages∙ Life after death can neither be proved nor disproved. This is because one would have to undergo physical death in order to prove or disprove it (and by its very nature, disproving it would not be possible). This is in contrast to something like astrology where one could undertake a study of people born at the same time and evaluate their personality traits and life outcomes at a later time to see if there is any correlation with time of birth. There is no actual direct evidence against anRead MoreSymbolism in Emily Dickinson’s Poetry918 Words   |  4 Pagesbe known that different people could see poems in many different ways. In Emily Dickinson’s poetry, she uses interpretations that refer back to mortality because of her past experiences throughout life that influenced her to write. But, there are other hidden facts that you would be able to see Dickinson’s poems, she uses symbolism of immortality, death, sorrow and personification throughout the three poems that I will be discussing in the following paragraphs. She describes each meaning to onlyRead MoreDeath : The Grim Reaper1094 Words   |  5 PagesEveryone is a little afraid of death. It is one of the radical subjects that marks around humanity. Death is a horrific subject to fathom, but let’s face it, our time will come soon. The unanswered questions include: What happens when you die? Does it hurt? Do you go anywhere? Does it all just go dark? Is there an afterlife? To try and understand death, the Grim Reaper have personified it in an effort to try and deduce insight into the process. Everything about the Grim Reaper is instilled withRead MoreThe And Of The Tolkien s Magnum Opus 1584 Words   |  7 Pagesdetermine whether or not her work is worthy of pertaining to the western canon. Also, I will describe the implications of her novels on the platonic worldview according to Rowling’s use of the themes of death and the afterlife. Additionally, I will be relating Rowling’s utilization of both death and the after life to that of Tolkien and Lewis in order to analyze its causation of arousing hope and setting justice. The novels crafted by Tolkien and Lewis seeks not only to entertainRead MoreWit and Donne1587 Words   |  7 Pagesof death and love. When these texts are studied together it is evident through continual intertextual reference that Donne has heavily influenced the play Wit. Although the texts differ contextually, with Donne’s 17th Century poetry and Edson’s 20th Century script writing, their contextual connections allow an enriched understanding of both the texts. Death is conveyed to a large extent within Donne’s poems of Holy Sonnets. As with many poets in the Renaissance area Donne was obsessed death. HeRead MoreAnalysis Of Gaius Valerius Catullus s The Iliad 1489 Words   |  6 PagesThe one main difference between the gods and mortals is that mortals can die, making it difficult for a man to become truly god-like. Homer makes no mention of the afterlife in The Iliad, meaning that the only true way for a mortal to live on is through the remembrance of their life on earth. Many strive for immortality, but to achieve it, one must obtain Kleos, the glory a man receives in war. If a hero like Achilles or Hector were mentioned to someone today, chances are, the person would know whoRead MoreTheme Of Mortality In The Epic Of Gilgamesh1220 Words   |  5 PagesThe Epic of Gilgamesh: A Hero’s Journey Several themes are addressed throughout the Epic of Gilgamesh, but the most prominent lies within the confrontation and acceptance of mortality. Gilgamesh—king of Uruk, ambitious builder, and bravest of mercenaries—seems to be blessed by a combination of two-thirds godliness and one-third manliness, yet plagued by his very own immoderation and naivety. The hero is witnessed engaging in the molestation of his women and exhausting Uruk’s people with manual labor

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Ancient Egyptian Style Of Ancient Egypt - 1351 Words

FNAR 200 Professor Heer 23 November 2015 KING NARMERS PALETTE The civilization of Ancient Egypt thrived from approximately 3100 bce until 30 bce, when the Roman Empire took control of the province. Unlike other ancient societies, however, where art would evolve and chance with new influences, the art of Ancient Egypt tends to look extremely similar for the entirety of those 300 years. The classical Egyptian style of art begins in the first dynasty, which is often considered to be ruled under King Narmer. The Narmer Palette (Fig. 1) is one of the most influential pieces of ancient Egyptian art for this very reason, as it portrays the joining of Upper and Lower Egypt into one solid empire that would continue to thrive for years to come at the fault of King Narmer. Unlike the art of prehistoric Egypt, dynastic art tends to focus on kingship and portraying the king as the sole ruler and most important figure in the civilization. Because of the powerful themes on both sides of the palette, the Narmer Palette has emerged as one o f the most crucial pieces of artwork from early Egypt as it represents the joining of the prehistoric past of the civilization and the pharaonic dynasty that was beginning to emerge. King Narmer is considered by historians to be the first pharaoh of unified Egypt. It is suggested that during his rule, he was responsible for uniting the former Upper and Lower Egypt to form one strong central Egypt, of which he became king. His kingship initiated theShow MoreRelatedAncient Egyptian Art And Art907 Words   |  4 PagesAncient Egyptian art is painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts constructed by the civilization of ancient Egypt in the lower Nile River from 3000 BC. Ancient Egyptian artist tried to idealize the universe, not as it actually existed, but more enduring and lasting symbols. They tended to portray life and people as they wished them to be and not how they actually are. 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This can be seen in many of her dresses throughout the film, especially during her dinner with Marc Antony and her surrender to Octavian and the Roman army. One example of this is in the slinky, gold lamà © dress Claudette Colbert dons as Cleopatra plots to poison Marc Antony. Not only does the figure-hugging gown remind the audience of her role as the temptress, but it echos strongly of the style of 1930s HollywoodRead MoreThe Importance of Animals and Symbolism in Ancient Egyptian Art1611 Words   |  7 PagesThe Ancient Egyptians are known for many of the incredible aspects of their culture and everything they have made. Some of the well known ancient Egyptian relics are the ones like the ancient pyramids, the Great Sphinx of Giza, mummies, and their many forms of art. Ancient Egyptian art, most commonly the paintings, are one of the most recognized styles of art. Not only is Egyptian art beautiful, but it carries a huge deal of value and significance with it. A great portion of the time, the art hasRead MoreAncient Greek Architecture : The Doric Style And The Ionic Design Essay1610 Words   |  7 PagesThere are three types of co lumns found in ancient Greek architecture but two of the three columns are: The Doric style and the Ionic design The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands. 2). The ushabti (also called shabti or shawabtiRead MoreFormal and Ekphrasis Analysis Of The palette of King Narme Essay835 Words   |  4 PagesThe horned anamorphic beings heads are illustrated in an unusual front angle, instead of the usual, Egyptian profile art style of illustrating heads, and faces. 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They had cities, a relatively high standard of living, music, arts , religion, writing, and literature.They both developed at the same time . However, they differed in important and some different ways, especially in terms of culture, politics, religion, art and architecture. Also, they have the geography which is their located differently. Egypt lies on the fertile Nile River valley , and desertRead MoreEssay about Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece903 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece† According to history there existed two of many important ancient civilizations that left a significant mark in the history of human development that even today leaves modern society in awe of its greatness. In spite of being distant civilizations, Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece share similarities and difference in terms of how they practiced religion,political structure, everyday life style, and how they built the monumental architectures that continued to amaze

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Data Analysis for Decision Makers

Question: Discuss about the inferential statistics of continuous random variables. Answer: Introduction The price of any house is an important factor in the daily life. Every people have a desire to purchase his or her own house at a certain point of time. This purchase of the house mainly depends on the price of the house (Gelman et al. 2014). The price of the house is influenced by various factors. Data had been collected on surveying the houses of Singapore. Data for 50 samples were collected. Various factors of the house were also surveyed. These data would be subjected to various statistical methods. Discrete variables, continuous variables and categorical variables have been used in this data set (Ott and Longnecker 2015). Explanations of various statistical terms would be given in this assignment with the help of the given data set. Graphs and charts would represent the data more precisely. Discussion Descriptive statistics The data consist of both discrete and continuous variables. The price of the house, the distance from the house from its nearest railway station, the distance of the house from the nearest bus stop and the distance of the house from the nearest shop are all continuous variables. It was seen that the average price of the selected houses was $788580. This is calculated by dividing the total price of all the houses with the number of houses chosen for the experiment. The median of the price of the house was $778000 (Thomson and Emery 2014). The minimum value of the chosen houses found to be $310000 while the maximum price was $1354000. The range of the price of the chosen houses was $104400. The standard deviation of the price of house is $280708 while the variance was found to be $78797064.9 (Menke 2012). The standard deviation is calculated by the square root of the sum of the deviation of the prices from the mean divided by number of samples chosen. The variance is calculated by squa ring the standard deviation. Variance gives the amount of deviation of the samples from its mean value. The average of other continuous variables is given as follows. The average distance of the houses from the nearest railway station is 1.086 kilometres while the average distance from the nearest bus stop is 1.186 kilometres and the average distance from the nearest shop is 0.99 kilometres (Bazeley and Jackson 2013). The median of the distance from nearest railway station is 1.1kilometres, from the nearest bus stop is 1.25 kilometres and from the nearest shop is 1.1 kilometres. The minimum distance of the houses from all the three cases was 0.1 kilometres while the maximum distance of the houses from the nearest railway station is 2.100 kilometres, from the nearest bus stop is 2.700 kilometres and from the nearest shop is 1.900 kilometres. The range of the distance from the nearest railway station, nearest bus stop and nearest shop is 2 kilometres, 2.6 kilometres and 1.8 kilometres respectively (Dimaggio 2013). The standard deviation of the distance from the nearest railway station, n earest bus stop and nearest shop is 0.58554 kilometres, 0.76798 kilometres and 0.54332 kilometres respectively. The variance of the distance of the nearest railway station from the houses was found to be 0.3428 kilometres, the variance of the distance of the nearest bus stop from the houses was found to be 0.5898 kilometres and the variance of the distance of the nearest shop from the houses was found to be 0.2952 kilometres (Twisk 2013). Figure 1: Graph of price distribution of the houses (Source: created by author) Figure 2: Graph of the distribution of distance of house from station in kilometres (Source: created by author) Figure 3: Graph of the distribution of distance of house from bus stop in kilometres (Source: created by author) Figure 4: Graph of the distribution of distance of house from shops in kilometres (Source: created by author) Discrete random variables and its probability distributions The discrete random variables for the data set are number of rooms, age of the house, area of the house in square metre, and number of bedrooms. These variables give the details of each of the randomly selected houses. The Poisson distribution can be used to describe these variables (Miles et al. 2013). Poisson distribution and the interpretation of the data set Poisson distribution gives the probability of the occurrence of a number of independent events in a fixed period. In this data set, considering the intervals of distances of the house from nearest railway station, bus stop and shops, the probability of the prices to be high in the intervals could be predicted. Prices are said to be high if they are beyond $1000000 (Woodward 2013). The probability of occurrence of such prices within the intervals of distances could be found from the data set. This would give an idea about how the distance of the house from its nearest railway station; nearest bus stop and nearest shop affect the price of the houses. The probability of occurrence of the high priced house in the distance intervals would give an idea whether factors other than influences the price of the house or not. Inferential statistics Inferential statistics is defined as the collection of data from its population and its measures. The collected data is used to find various measures of statistics. These measures include descriptive statistics, correlation, regression and hypothesis testing. When the sample size is greater than thirty, Normal distribution Normal distribution is a common continuous probability distribution in the theory of probability. Normal distribution is mainly used in natural and social science in order to represent the random variables whose distribution was unknown. Central limit theorem makes the use of normal distribution an important one. Central limit theorem states that when a large number of samples are drawn independently from independent distributions, the average of these random variables converges to normal distribution (Balakrishnan 2013). The curve of the normal distribution is a bell shaped curve and the probability density of the normal distribution is given as follows: f (x/ , 2) = (1/ sqrt(2 2)) e (x- )^2/ 2 2 ; where is the mean value of the distribution and 2 is the variance of the distribution. Reasons for normal distribution used in sampling distribution The commonly used probability distribution for continuous distribution is the normal distribution. According to the central limit theorem, it was seen that the distribution of large samples tend to normal distribution. This tendency of every variable to follow the normal distributions leads to the concept of using normal distribution for sampling distribution (Kleinbaum et al. 2013). Moreover, using normal distribution in sampling distribution helps in easy calculations of sampling distributions and this distribution is usually considered as the standard distribution for sampling distributions (Balakrishnan 2013). The basis for Inferential Statistics The basis of inferential statistics is the Central Limit theorem. The samples drawn from large population are used to estimate the characteristics of the population. The probable value of mean of the population can be guessed from the mean of the samples drawn from the population. The standard deviation and variance of the sample gives the probable value of the standard deviation and variance of the population (Boy-Roura et al. 2015). Inferential statistics helps to infer about the population using one or more samples from the population. Inferential statistics gives an idea about whether the difference between the groups of variables occurs by chance or they are real. The basis of inferential statistics is the assumptions that could be made about the populations from the selected samples. Inference could be drawn about the larger groups on studying the variables of the smaller groups (Ciarleglio et al. 2016). It is not possible to study the whole population, as it would be logistically impossible, too much expensive and time consuming. The method of sampling and inferences drawn from the statistics, helps to infer about the population in reduced cost, with great accuracy and more scope to yield information (Pineda et al. 2015). More attention can be given to each of the samples and the results could be more accurate for the sample statistics. The sample statistics would infer a better result about the population from which the sample is selected. Confidence interval Explanation of continuous random variable Continuous random variables are those variables who take all the values in a given interval. These random variables are defined as the possible outcomes of the random variables in a definite interval of real numbers (Zhai et al. 2013). Continuous random variables are uncountably infinite; i.e. they have too many possible values to list out as the possible outcome of any problem. Measuring of continuous random variable can be done with high level of precession than the discrete random variables. Explanation of a confidence interval The range of values that describe uncertainty by surrounding an estimate is called confidence interval of the values. A confidence interval is indicated by the endpoints of the intervals. Lower limit and upper limit of the interval gives the value of the confidence interval. Confidence interval also defines the range of values that most probably encompass the true value (Altman et al. 2013). Confidence interval of the statistic is computed in such a way that the interval have a specific chance of containing the value of the corresponding parameter of the population. Construction of the confidence interval Confidence interval of any set of data is constructed by first choosing its level of significance. The level of significance is indicates the true probable value of the data to lie in the given confidence interval. Confidence interval is calculated by determining the lower limit and upper limit of the data set. The z value of the test is found by using the level of significance of the test. This value is used to calculate the lower limit and upper limit of the confidence interval. The lower limit is computed by subtracting the product of z value and standard deviation from the mean value of the data set. The upper limit is computed by adding the product of z value and standard deviation to the mean of the data set. Thus, the confidence interval is constructed using the lower limit and upper limit of the test. From the result of the data set, it was seen that the upper limit of the prices of the houses of Singapore is 1707.2 and the lower limit of the prices of the houses of Singapore is 186.97. The interval (186.97, 1701.2) gives the confidence interval of the price of the houses of Singapore at 95% level of significance. Interpretation of the confidence interval Confidence interval helps to determine the probable range of values between which the values of the data set would lie. In the given data set, the confidence interval of the given data set is given as (186.97, 1701.2) at 95% level of significance (Siegmund 2013). This indicates that there is a probability of 95% for the values of the data set to lie within the interval of (186.97, 1701.2). This helps to determine the expected value of the population and the interval in which they would lie. Regression method The method of regression is used to estimate the relationships between the variables. There are two types of variables in a data set; dependent variable and independent variables. Regression methods help to determine the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables (Cumming 2013). The independent variables do not posses any multi co linearity. The method of regression helps to understand the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. It also denotes how the value of the dependent variable changes with the change in the values of the independent variable. From the values of the data set, it was seen that the dependent variable is the price of the houses and the independent variables are the other factors. The regression equation is given as follows: Y = 1751.3982 86.5995x1 4.42955x2 + 0.099x3 119.1857x4+27.601 x5 79.134 x6 2.073 x7 34.833x8 + 3.1486 x9 This shows that the price of the houses is negatively correlated with number of rooms, age of the house, distance of house from station (km), distance of house from shops (in km), number of bedrooms and number of storeys (Altman et al. 2013). The slopes of these variables are negative and this indicates that the increase in the values of these variables leads to decrease in the price of the houses of Singapore. The variables Area of house (in sq m) distance of house from bus stop (km) and type of Kitchen has a positive slope and the value of the price of the house of Singapore would increase with the increase in the values of these variables (Ciarleglio et al. 2016). The regression equation is used to interpolate the values of the dependent variables using the values of the independent variables. Conclusion The values of the price of houses of Singapore had been subjected to various statistical methods. The factors that influence the prices of the houses of Singapore were also subjected to statistical methods of measures of central tendency and methods of variations. Confidence interval of the prices of the houses of Singapore had been calculated, which gave the 95% probability of the values to lie in the interval of (186.97, 1701.2). Regression analysis was done to understand the method of interpolation of the value of dependent variable with the help of independent variables. The assignment also gave an idea about the inferential statistics of continuous random variables. References Altman, D., Machin, D., Bryant, T. and Gardner, M. eds., 2013.Statistics with confidence: confidence intervals and statistical guidelines. John Wiley Sons. Balakrishnan, N., 2013.Handbook of the logistic distribution. CRC Press. Bazeley, P. and Jackson, K. eds., 2013.Qualitative data analysis with NVivo. Sage Publications Limited. Boy-Roura, M., Cameron, K.C. and Di, H.J., 2015. Identification of nitrate leaching loss indicators through regression methods based on a meta-analysis of lysimeter studies.Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp.1-10. Ciarleglio, A., Petkova, E., Tarpey, T. and Ogden, R.T., 2016. Flexible functional regression methods for estimating individualized treatment rules.Stat,5(1), pp.185-199. Cumming, G., 2013.Understanding the new statistics: Effect sizes, confidence intervals, and meta-analysis. Routledge. Dimaggio, C., 2013.Introduction(pp. 1-5). Springer New York. Gelman, A., Carlin, J.B., Stern, H.S. and Rubin, D.B., 2014.Bayesian data analysis(Vol. 2). Boca Raton, FL, USA: Chapman Hall/CRC. Kleinbaum, D., Kupper, L., Nizam, A. and Rosenberg, E., 2013.Applied regression analysis and other multivariable methods. Nelson Education. Menke, W., 2012.Geophysical data analysis: discrete inverse theory. Academic press. Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. and Saldana, J., 2013.Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. SAGE Publications, Incorporated. Ott, R.L. and Longnecker, M., 2015.An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis. Nelson Education. Pineda, S., Real, F.X., Kogevinas, M., Carrato, A., Chanock, S.J., Malats, N. and Van Steen, K., 2015. Integration analysis of three omics data using penalized regression methods: An application to bladder cancer.PLoS Genet,11(12), p.e1005689. Siegmund, D., 2013.Sequential analysis: tests and confidence intervals. Springer Science Business Media. Thomson, R.E. and Emery, W.J., 2014.Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. Newnes. Twisk, J.W., 2013.Applied longitudinal data analysis for epidemiology: a practical guide. Cambridge University Press. Woodward, M., 2013.Epidemiology: study design and data analysis. CRC Press. Zhai, Y., Cui, L., Zhou, X., Gao, Y., Fei, T. and Gao, W., 2013. Estimation of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in the leaves of different plants using laboratory-based visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy: comparison of partial least-square regression and support vector machine regression methods.International journal of remote sensing,34(7), pp.2502-2518.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Oil Transnational’s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example Essay Example

Oil Transnational’s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example Paper Oil Transnational’s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Introduction The contemporary map of conflicts in Africa does not showcase Nigeria- and for a good reason: there are no international peace keeping forces there. The main theatres of conflict on the continent have for the better part of the last two decades been the Great Lakes region, the Horn of Africa, and parts of West Africa. These include countries such as: Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Somalia, Sudan, Sierra Leone and Cà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½te d’Ivoire. To the Horn of Africa sample must be added Eritrea, which despite having secured independence from Ethiopia, still has unresolved border issues with that country. However, as far as armed conflicts are concerned, Nigeria does have some experience – if one recalls that between 1967 and 1970, only a few years after gaining independence from Britain (in 1960), the country was engulfed in a bloody civil war. It cannot be reasonably assumed that the Nigerian government and people have done all they should to prevent the tensions and ‘civil disturbances’ which frequently erupt, or have become endemic, in different parts of the country from escalating into ‘bleeding’ conflicts. Such tensions include the restiveness in the Niger Delta (Nigeria’s oil and gas province) – a region that has since the early 1990s witnessed an almost unbroken orgy of violence and militarization. Oil Transnational’s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Body Paragraphs The Niger Delta lies in the south of the country and consists of nine states and nearly 70,000 square kilometers of land and waterways. This area accounts for over 90 per cent of Nigeria’s known gas and oil reserves, which in turn accounted for nearly 80 per cent of total government revenues. As Nigeria’s economic powerhouse, the Delta is important to the country’s economic standing, as well as to the politicians who benefit from the incoming revenue. Mismanagement of oil revenues since independence, corruption, the failure to redistribute oil wealth, the utter lack of development in the Delta, and environmental damage arising from oil related exploration related activities have hardened the resolve of those living in the region to agitate for change, and increased popular support for those groups fighting for a better deal. Militancy has grown in the Delta in response to the continued lack of attention to the basic needs of the population: Social instability, po or local governance, competition for economic resources and environmental degradation has taken a toll . . . . The delta today is a place of frustrated expectation and deep-rooted mistrust . . . [where] [l]ong years of neglect and conflict have fostered a siege mentality (UNDP, 2006, p. 16)1. The grievances of those living in the Delta are well founded. The population suffers from environmental contamination resulting from the operations of oil companies and the oil bunkering (illegal tapping of oil pipelines) of armed groups. Oil spills and gas flaring have negatively affected agricultural land, water sources, and air quality. In return, the population has received very little from the government, which benefits from the high revenues earned from selling oil overseas. Legally, the population has no control over the oil that sits beneath their land, and no claim to the profits accrued through its sale. The percentage of revenue received by oil-producing states has increased to 13 pe r cent from less than 2 per cent under military rule, but this funding goes to state coffers, with few visible signs of it being spent to improve the lives of people in local communities. Although the incidence of poverty is said to have declined since 1996 in the Delta (UNDP, 2006, p. 58)2, the lack of roads, the limited health care and education facilities, high unemployment, and limited future prospects underline the neglect by the state and federal governments. While there are legitimate grievances in the Delta, not all violence can be equated with a fight for justice, development, or equitable distribution of oil revenues. The Delta has witnessed the emergence of a plethora of armed groups over the past decades. Some of these groups agitate for change in the political situation and in the distribution of resources. More often, the push is not for democratic governance or an even distribution of oil revenues, but rather a call for the right to all oil revenues for oil-producing areas. In other words, it is a claim for resource control and financial revenue to be ceded to the oil producing states where decisions about distribution can then be made, thereby taking this decision-making power out of the hands of the federal government. Other groups merely take advantage of the lack of law and order in the area to engage in criminal activities and oil bunkering aimed at profit or territorial control. Although many groups use the legitimate problems in the Delta to justify their actions, no group has come forward with a political and economic plan of its own on how to resolve the concerns of the Delta communities. Given the difficulty in obtaining information on armed groups, as well as the fluidity with which they evolve, it is difficult to obtain an exact figure for the number of these groups active in the Delta today or accurate information about their activities. The numbers continue to change as groups emerge, merge, or disappear. While smaller groups certa inly have an impact at the local level, there are perhaps only a handful of groups large enough to affect the dynamics of the region as a whole. The most prominent group currently active in the Niger Delta is the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND). Other active groups include the Coalition for Militant Action in the Niger Delta (COMA), the Joint Revolutionary Council (JRC), the Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF), and a number of cult groups, such as the Outlaws and Icelander. Armed groups have increased their use of violent tactics over the past year in the form of kidnappings, battles with security forces, clashes with one another, and car bombs, which is a more recent tactic. Such groups are demonstrating increasingly sophisticated tactics and weaponry, raising concerns about future violence. Those groups with more purely economic motives have joined the fray by tapping into the illegal oil-bunkering trade and kidnapping international oil and construction workers for ransom. The response of the government has been an increase in the militarization of its approach to the Delta crisis, but this strategy has not yielded the dividends intended. Instead, this heavy-handed approach seems to have spurred on the armed groups, solidified their commitment to armed struggle, encouraged recruitment, oil pipeline Vandalization, and raised public support for some of these groups. â€Å"Those who proclaim the death of sovereignty misread the history. The nation state has a keen instinct for survival and has so far adapted to new challenges, even the challenge of globalization† (Krasner, 2001: 20). He also argues that globalization is not a new challenge or phenomena. Even though I agree that globalization is not something of today, the question that remains is whether contemporary globalization is likely to have a different impact on the nation state then that of the past? For today’s globalization distinguishes itself fr om that of the past in terms of rapid communication, market liberalization and the global integration of goods, services and production. Taking the example of the European supremacy era in world trade, and its relation with the Far East, we can speak of a global trade and exchange of goods and services. This explains the difference between modern globalization and that of the past. Even though it might not be appropriated to compare the ancient world with today’s modern nation states, as we did not have independent and sovereign states then; we had independent regions. For example, China was not dependent on economical relations with Europe in the past; nor was Europe on China. But today there is an increasingly growing interdependency between them. The nation states are compelled to build relations with other states in order to sell their goods, services and develop a stronger and larger economy. So due to this interdependency we can undermine one of the three-fold capacitie s of a sovereign state -the absolute freedom from any external force, which shapes the conduct of the nation states. Although states are not literally forced to modify their conduct toward the international society or other states, it is in their interest to do so. Part of the sovereignty is also the ability of a state to solve its domestic problems on its own. But since problems and threats are getting more globalized, it is almost impossible for a state to act alone and entirely independent. Taking the international crime as an example, let’s assume there is a weapon trade between two criminal organizations rooted in Germany and in The Netherlands. In order to demolish this crime network The Netherlands is dependent on the assistance of Germany and vice versa. This undermines the second notion of sovereignty, which is absolute supremacy over internal affairs within its territory. Also seen from a philosophical point of view, there is a demising process in the sovereignty of nation state. The emergence of International Human Rights Organization, which is based on the Kantian philosophy that views the world as a community of free individuals; a community where nations and borders are no longer relevant or of any meaning. According to this philosophy one can speak of a world, which is going toward a global civil society. It might be worth mentioning what the notion of global civil society stands for. Originally the notion of civil society referred to, or was characterized by, a social contract. â€Å"Civil society was a type of state on the We will write a custom essay sample on Oil Transnational’s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Oil Transnational’s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Oil Transnational’s, the State and the Spatial Contexts of Local Militancy in Nigeria Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Free Essays on I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings

Maya Angelou faces many hardships, yet manages to overcome them all, in her autobiography, â€Å"I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.† Maya is a strong willed, often stubborn, outgoing, somewhat outspoken, and rather intelligent girl. She becomes very tolerant due to some of her experiences. She also matures faster mentally than many other girls her age because of her situation and experiences. From the time she was young and through adolescence, Maya considered herself ugly. She was a tall, somewhat lanky African American. She was skinny, and felt that her eyes were too small and squinty. She was also ashamed of her large feet. Throughout the story, Maya is discouraged by the segregation of the blacks. For a long time she is denied the job that she wishes to have because of the color of her skin. Also, she wants her family to be together and to be happy. She is separated from her parents at a young age and lives with her grandmother and uncle for most of her childhood. When she is with her parents, she tends to feel secondary. There is always something a touch more important that she and her brother Baily. Maya Angelou faces many hardships, yet manages to overcome them all, in her autobiography, â€Å"I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.† When the book begins, Angelou is a young child, a mere three years old. As she grows up, though somewhat sheltered by her grandmother’s position as a general store owner, her eyes are opened to the current ways of the South. Blacks are lesser people that whites, and that was the way it was for her. On several occasions she watched in horror as young girls called her grandmother by her first name, when they should have been respectful and at lease used â€Å"Miss†. Once breaking the segregation barrier for herself, she gets a job with the Streetcar Company. Having a job, and the responsibility that comes with it, she mentally matures faster than the other children her age. While living with her mother t... Free Essays on I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings Free Essays on I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings Maya Angelou faces many hardships, yet manages to overcome them all, in her autobiography, â€Å"I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.† Maya is a strong willed, often stubborn, outgoing, somewhat outspoken, and rather intelligent girl. She becomes very tolerant due to some of her experiences. She also matures faster mentally than many other girls her age because of her situation and experiences. From the time she was young and through adolescence, Maya considered herself ugly. She was a tall, somewhat lanky African American. She was skinny, and felt that her eyes were too small and squinty. She was also ashamed of her large feet. Throughout the story, Maya is discouraged by the segregation of the blacks. For a long time she is denied the job that she wishes to have because of the color of her skin. Also, she wants her family to be together and to be happy. She is separated from her parents at a young age and lives with her grandmother and uncle for most of her childhood. When she is with her parents, she tends to feel secondary. There is always something a touch more important that she and her brother Baily. Maya Angelou faces many hardships, yet manages to overcome them all, in her autobiography, â€Å"I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.† When the book begins, Angelou is a young child, a mere three years old. As she grows up, though somewhat sheltered by her grandmother’s position as a general store owner, her eyes are opened to the current ways of the South. Blacks are lesser people that whites, and that was the way it was for her. On several occasions she watched in horror as young girls called her grandmother by her first name, when they should have been respectful and at lease used â€Å"Miss†. Once breaking the segregation barrier for herself, she gets a job with the Streetcar Company. Having a job, and the responsibility that comes with it, she mentally matures faster than the other children her age. While living with her mother t... Free Essays on I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings: Movie and Book The novel, "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings", by Maya Angelou is the first series of five autobiographical novels. This novel tells about her life in rural Stamps, Arkansas with her religious grandmother and St. Louis, Missouri, where her worldly and glamorous mother resides. At the age of three Maya and her four-year old brother, Bailey, are turned over to the care of their paternal grandmother in Stamps, Arkansas. Southern life in Stamps, Arkansas was filled with humiliation, violation, and displacement. These actions were exemplified for blacks by the fear of the Ku Klux Klan, racial separation of the town, and the many incidents in belittling blacks. Maya knows that to be black and female is to be faced with violence and violation. This is brought into focus when she goes to live with her mother and is raped by her mother’s boyfriend. When Maya is faced with this catastrophe, tells who did this to her, and the man is killed, she believes her voice killed him. She withdraws into herself and vows never to speak again. Her mother feeling that she has done everything in her power to make Maya talk, but can cannot reach her, sends Maya and her brother back to Stamps. After Maya returns to Stamps and with the help of her Teacher-Ms. Flowers she begins to speak again. The culmination of the novel is when Maya describes her eighth grade graduation. Angelou, her classmates, and parents listen to the condescending and racist manner in which the guest speaker talks. After listening to his insults, Ma... Free Essays on I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Literary Analysis As shown in by Maya Angelou, Cat’s in the Cradle by Harry Chapin and Family Portrait by Alicia Moore, family greatly affects who a person grows up to be. All of these writings show examples of children living their lives based on how their parents lived their lives. However, they all have different styles and methods of expressing their ideas. In I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, the author tells about her home life using metaphors. She speaks of them almost as if they were interesting people she just happened to come into contact with in her life, other than her family. Maya Angelou very rarely quoted anything her mother said. She talks about her a lot, but didn’t include much dialogue between her mother and herself in her memoirs. However, she did comment a lot on her mother’s exterior. â€Å"My mother’s beauty literally assailed me. Her red lips split to show even white teeth and her fresh-butter color looked see-through clean.† Maya commented on her mother’s appearance quite often, which led me to believe that she never really knew her mother all that well. All she knew was what she saw. This is quite the same in Family Portrait by Alicia Moore. The only side of her parents it seemed she was quite aware of was the side that was always fighting, always angry. â€Å"Mama ple ase stop crying, I can’t stand the sound.† It seemed that her parents were never content with their home situation. It was a never-ending quest to prove to her mother and father that she could be better. Unlike in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, this author seemed to be blaming herself for all the wrong that existed in her family. â€Å"I won’t spill the milk at dinner, I’ll be so much better, I’ll do everything right, I’ll be your little girl forever, I’ll go to sleep at night.† The author recognized the hardships in the family and tried to get the characters to fix their own problems. The theme in C...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Case Analisys Report - Microsoft Antitrust Battles Essay

Case Analisys Report - Microsoft Antitrust Battles - Essay Example ses the primary stakeholders in the case, a legal analysis, as well as an ethical analysis of the different issues surrounding the antitrust case against Microsoft. It also includes a discussion of different factors that may have contributed to Microsoft’s display of unethical behavior as well as factors that need to be addressed to resolve the issues. The paper gives recommendations on what actions are needed to deal with the legal/ethical issues as well as policies that the company can adopt to prevent such incidents from recurring in the future. Although the partnership between William H. Gates (more commonly known as Bill Gates) and Paul G. Allen has been established in the year 1975, it was not until a year after that the trade name Microsoft Corporation was officially registered in New Mexico with the Office of the Secretary of the State (Microsoft, 2005). Since then, Microsoft has become renowned worldwide for their extensive range of original products and software as well as their laudable skills in marketing and advertising their products. As popular the reputation of Microsoft Corporations might be, they have been face with numerous cases regarding alleged violations of ethical and legal matters. These issues have cropped up in connection with Microsoft’s control of certain markets related to the selling of computer and software. The earliest inquiry was way back in the year 1990 regarding breach of the Clayton and Sherman antitrust laws. Since then, other complaints from several large corporations such as Apple Computer, Sun Microsystem, and Netscape Communications have been brought against Microsoft Corporation. The most recent antitrust complaint was from Opera Software ASA in the year 2007 with regard to Microsoft’s manipulation of web browser by combining the Windows operating system with Internet Explorer, thereby going against accepted web standards (Opera Software, 2007). These complaints have had an effect on Microsoft financially, when